Recommendations for Skin Spots

Posted on by Beste Gürkan

Solution suggestions for Skin Stains

 Aging due to the sun and hyperpigmentation lesions on the skin such as sunspots, freckles, pigment irregularities on the skin or melasma have always aroused discomfort in us. In addition, in some cases, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentations may develop after chemical peeling or laser treatments, even after acne.

The factor that determines skin pigmentation is melanin synthesis. Melanin synthesis occurs as a result of melanosomes and their dispersal into keratinocytes in the epidermal melanin layer. Incorrect operation of this system results in hyperpigmentation. Skin spots and spot irregularities that occur as a result of irregular melanin synthesis create a bad appearance on the skin, an unacceptable result for most of us. Unfortunately, the number of active substances that are truly effective in pigment irregularities in the skin is very few. And most importantly, for these active ingredients to be effective on skin blemishes: patience, time and regular use are very important. It can take a very long time (may require months or years) for stains to be removed from the skin. The most effective results are achieved with chemical peels, laser or beam treatments. In order for the spots not to develop again after they are removed, the process should be supported with products containing active substances that suppress melanin synthesis (tyrosinase inhibitors, melanosometransfer inhibitors) and broad-spectrum sunscreens.

Tyrosinase is the enzyme that controls melanin synthesis and is also a product of melanocytes. It is known as the enzyme that determines the production rate of melanin biosynthesis in epidermal melanocytes. Therefore, Tyrosinase activities are one of the most decisive steps in the formation of melanin. For this reason, it is very important to choose products consisting of ingredients that act as Tyrosinase inhibitor and reduce (suppress) melanin production so that stains do not reoccur after they are removed.

Niacinamide

Niacinamide, also known as nicotnamide, is the biologically active amide group of Vitamin B3. Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, intercellular communication and immunomodulatory properties. There are also studies showing that niacinamide prevents the transfer of melanosomes to the epidermal keratinocyte. Clinical studies have shown that Niacinamide has the ability to inhibit melanosome transfer by up to 68% and helps to improve undesirable color irregularities in the skin [1, 2]. It has also been shown that the effects of niacinamide on pigmentation are reversible [3].

  Mulberry Leaf Extract

Broussonetia papyrifera (Black Mulberry Leaf)—A study examined the tyrosinase inhibitory activities, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation and melanin biosynthesis activities of 101 plant extracts. At the end of the study, it was revealed that Broussonetia papyrifera (Black Mulberry Leaf) inhibited tyrosinase activity and L-DOPA [4].

 Pedigreea Protein

It is known as Leguminosae in Latin. In recent years, as the benefits of soybean plant have been researched and discovered, many skin care products have started to be included in the formula.

Paine et al. revealed that soy and proteins obtained from soy have skin tone lightening (depigmentation) properties [5].

The depigmentation properties of soy-based actives (oil, extract) and their capacity to inhibit UV-induced pigmentation have been proven in vivo and in vitro [6].In the experiment with products containing soy extract applied twice a day for 12 weeks; It was observed that the skin spots on the skin of the subjects were opened, the dull and pale appearance of the skin decreased, the skin became more vivid and the skin tone more regular [7]

In addition to its depigmentation properties, soy has antioxidant properties because it contains isoflavones.

 Vitamin C

Vitamin C, or Ascorbic acid, is found in citrus fruits and green leafy vegetables. It has been determined that products containing well-formulated Vitamin C have the ability to inhibit melanin formation [8].

One study has shown that topically applied Vitamin C brightens the skin [9].

Also, Vitamin C has antioxidant properties. It has also been proven to trigger collagen synthesis [10].

 Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA)

In recent years, AHA peels have become the most effective and valuable actives in dermatological studies. The most common AHAs in dermatological studies are Glycolic Acid and Lactic Acid [11]. Since Glycolic Acid causes minimal complications, it can be used at different rates: It has usage rates from 2% to 70%. It has been proven that AHAs directly suppress tyrosinase activity in melanoma cells [12].

Burns et al. It has been shown that glycolic acid peels are beneficial for post-inflammatory spots [13].

It has been revealed that people who receive support with chemical peeling in skin tone inequalities and skin spots have more effective results in getting rid of spots compared to those who use products containing only light spot actives [14].

One of the tricks in using AHA is to start with products containing low concentrations of AHA at the beginning and increase the concentration and application time gradually and gradually. In such applications, skin irritations do not occur [15].

As a result, the skin pigmentation process has a very complex structure. Tyrosinase suppression is the most successful and widely used method for pigmentation irregularities and skin spots. However, the number of ingredients that are successful in Tyrosinase inhibition is very few and it is very difficult to work with these ingredients because they can cause irritation or are difficult to stabilize. It is very important that the products are developed by expert and experienced R&D personnel.

If you need help with your skin care routine WhatsApp Support by contacting us from our experts you can get help.

Sources:

  1. Hakozaki T, Minwalla L, Zhuang J, et al. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147:20.
  2. Otte N, Borelli C, Korting HC. Nicotinamide—biologic actions of an emerging cosmetic ingredient. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2005;27:255.
  3. Greatens A, Hakozaki T, Koshoffer A, et al. Effective inhibition of melanosome transfer to keratinocytes by lectins and niacinamide is reversible. Exp Dermatol. 2005;14:498.
  4. Hwang JH, Lee BM. Inhibitory effects of plant extracts on tyrosinase, L-DOPA oxidation, and melanin synthesis. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007;70:393.
  5. Paine C, Sharlow E, Liebel F, et al. An alternative approach to depigmentation by soybean extracts via inhibition of the PAR-2 ​​pathway. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:587.
  6. Hermanns JF, Petit L, Martalo O, et al. Unraveling the patterns of subclinical pheomelanin-enriched facial hyperpigmentation: effect of depigmenting agents. Dermatology. 2000;201:118.
  7. Wallo W, Nebus J, Leyden JJ.Efficacy of a soy moisturizer in photoaging: a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, 12-week study J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:917.
  8. Ros JR, Rodriguez-Lopez JN, Garcia- Canovas F. Effect of L-ascorbic acid on the monophenolase activity of tyrosinase. Biochem J. 1993;295:309.
  9. Kameyama K, Sakai C, Kondoh S, et al. Inhibitory effect of magnesium L-ascor- byl-2-phosphate (VC-PMG) on melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34:29.
  10. Huh C-H, Seo K-I, Park J-Y, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin C iontophoresis in melasma. Dermatology. 2003;206:316
  11. Brody HJ. Chemical Peeling and Resurfacing. st. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book; 1997:90-100.
  12. Usuki A, Ohashi A, Sato H, et al. The inhibitory effect of glycolic acid and lactic acid on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Exp Dermatol. 2003;2(suppl 12):43.
  13. Burns RL, Prevost-Blank PL, Lawry MA, et al. Glycolic acid peels for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in black patients. A comparative study. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23:171.
  14. Lim JT, Tham SN. Glycolic acid peels in the treatment of melasma among Asian women. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23:177.
  15. Rubin MG. The clinical use of alpha hydroxy acids. Australas J Dermatol. 1994;35:29.
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